||Parties, Lists, Parliamentary Groups, Etc.
According to the Parties Law (1992), a party is defined as a group of people who have
come together in order to pursue legally political or social goals, and to bring
about their representation in the Knesset. Since the passing of this law,
there are clear regulations regarding the establishment of parties, their registration
with the Parties Registrar, their institutions, assets, activities, finances, etc...
The law also determines the limitations on a party's potential registration. The
following prohibitions are included in these limitations:
- Any rejection (in the party's goals or activities) of the existence of the State of Israel as a Jewish, democratic state.
- Any incitement to racism.
- Any support of the armed struggle of an enemy state or terrorist organization against the State of Israel
- Any hint of a cover for illegal activity.
The bodies which participate in the Knesset elections are called "lists." A list must
consist of at least one registered party, but it could also contain several parties.
For example, in the elections for the Fifteenth Knesset, the list "One Israel" consisted of
the Labor Party, Meimad, and Gesher.
A list may also include individuals and movements that are not registered as parties.
Such was the case in the elections for the Fourteenth Knesset in the United Arab List
which consisted of the Arab Democratic Party (a registered party) and individuals from
the Islamic Movement, which is not registered as a party.
The Central Elections Committee has the right to invalidate the candidacy of any list
whose actions or goals negate the existence of Israel as a Jewish and democratic state,
incite to racism, or support the armed struggle of an enemy state or terrorist
organization against the State of Israel.
Once a list is elected to the Knesset, it becomes a Parliamentary Group (also called "faction"), even if the
distinct parties in it continue to function individually on the outside. According
to the Parties Financing Law (1973), the Knesset Committee may, after the elections,
recognize a new parliamentary group in any of the following situations: One which
broke off from an existing parliamentary group (such as in 1984, Mapam broke off
from the Alignment); a new parliamentary group which is made up of Knesset members
who were originally part of other groups (such as the new Center Party in the fourteenth
Knesset, made up of
Knesset members from Labor and the Likud); or a new parliamentary group which is created
through the unification of two existing parliamentary groups (which occurred in the
Twelfth Knesset when Meretz was formed from Ratz, Mapam, and Shinui).
The law also fixes limitations on the recognition of new parliamentary groups.
Usually, before upcoming elections, there is intensified activity setting up new
parliamentary groups because the financing of parties depends partly on the number
of seats belonging to the corresponding parliamentary groups in the current Knesset.
The law does not recognize movements as distinct legal entities. However, a movement may
register as a party, a non-profit organization, a company, or as any other legally
recognized body. In other words, "movement" is simply a word also used as part of a
name ("youth movement," "Herut Movement"), but by itself having no legal standing.
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